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Scientific Evidence on Nordic Walking
- Aigner A, Ledl-Kurkowski E, Hörl S,Salzmann K. Effecte von Nordic Walking bzw. Normalen Gehen auf Herzfrequenz und atrerielle Laktatkonzentration. Österreichisches Journal fur Sportmedizin 34, H.3, 32-36, 2004.
- Anttila, Holopainen, Jokinen. Polewalking and the effect of regular 12-week polewalking exercise on neck and shoulder symptoms, the mobility of the cervical and thoracic spine and aerobic capacity. Final project work for the Helsinki IV College for health care professionals, 1999.
- Baatile J, Langbein W, Weaver F, Maloney C, Jost M. Effect of exercise on perceived quality of life of individuals with Parkinson's disease. J of Rehabilitiation Research and Development 37(5), September/October 2000.
- Butts, Knox, Foley. Energy cost of walking on a dual-action treadmill in men and women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 27(1), 121-125, 1995.
- Church, Earnest, Morss. Field testing of physiological responses associated with Nordic Walking. Res Quart Exerc Sports 73;296-300, 2002.
- Collins E, Langbein W, Orebaugh C, Bammert C, Hanson K, Reda D, Edwards L, Littooy F. PoleStriding exercise and vitamin E for management of peripheral vascular disease. Med Sci Sports Exerc 3;384-393, 2003.
- Foley. The effects of Cross Walk (R)'s resistive arm poles on the metabolic costs of treadmill walking. Thesis. University of Wisconsin-La Grosse, 1994.
- Gullstrand L, Svedenhag J. Training effects after 7 weeks of pole- and normal walking. 8th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science. Salzburg, Austria 09.-12.07.2003. In: Abstract book. Ed. Mueller E, Schwameder H, Zallinger G, Fastenbauer V. Institute of Sport Science, University of Salzburg, Austria 2003, p. 33-34 (abstract).
- Haugan A, Sollesnes B. Does submaximal oxygen uptake increase when using Nordic Walking poles? Academic degree study. Sogn og Fjordane University College Faculty of Teacher Education, Sogndal, Norway, May 2003.
- Heikkilä M, Kettunen O, Vasankari T. Improved fitness and reduced weight with Nordic Walking. Report. VierumÃ¤ki, Finland , December 2004, unpublished.
- Lande S, Hermansen B, Stamland O, Nordaune P. The physiological - and additional effects of pole walking. A systematic review. Research report at Fontys University of Professional Education Eindhoven, Department of Physiotherapy. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 2003.
- Hendrickson. The physiological responses to walking with and without Power Poles™ on treadmill exercise. Thesis. University of Wisconsin-La Grosse, 1993.
- Jordan, Olson, Earnest, Morss, Church. Metabolic cost of high intensity poling while Nordic Walking versus normal walking. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33(5), S86, 2001.
- Karawan. The effects of twelve weeks of walking or Exertriding on upper body muscular strength and endurance. Thesis. University of Wisconsin-La Grosse, 1992.
- Karvonen, Mörsky, Tolppala, Varis. The effects of stick walking on neck and shoulder pain in office workers. Final project work at Mikkeli Polytechnic School. Degree programme of Physiotherapy. Mikkeli 2001.
- Knox. Energy cost of walking with and without arm activity on the Cross Walk dual motion cross trainer. Thesis. University of Wisconsin-La Grosse, 1993.
- Koskinen J, Kärki M, Virtanen M. Power and Balance fron Nordic Walking - effects of regular NW to muscular strenght and postural control of ageing employees who are unaccustomed to regular physical exercise. Bachelor of Physiotherapy degree. Helsinki Polytechnic Health Care and Socia Services, Helsinki, 2003.
- Kukkonen-Harjula K, Mänttäri A, Hiilloskorpi H, Pasanen M, Laukkanen R, Suni J, Fogelholm M, Parkkari J. Training responses of self-guided brisk walking with or without poles- a ranzomized controlled trial in middle-aged women. 9th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science. Clermont- Ferrand, France, 03.-06.07.2004. Book of abstracts, p.157.
- Langbein WE, Collins EG, Orebauch C et al. Increasing exercise tolerance of persons limited by claudication pain using polestriding. J Vasc Surg 2002;35:887-893.
- Laukkanen R. HR response to Nordic Walking compared to regular walking, 1998 (unpublished).
- Larkin. Aerobic responses to 12 weeks of exertriding or walking training in sedentary adult women. Thesis University of Wisconsin-La Grosse, 1992.
- Morss, Church, Earnest, Jordan. Field test comparing the metabolic cost of normal walking versus walking with Nordic Walking. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33(5), S23, 2001.
- Mänttäri A, Hannola H, Laukkanen R, Hiilloskorpi H, Alikoski J, Valve R, Pekkarinen H, Parkkari J. Cardiorespirtory and musculoskeletal responses of walking with and without poles in field conditions in middle-aged women. 9th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science. Clermont- Ferrand, France, 03.-06.07.2004. Book of abstracts, p. 157
- Parkatti T, Wacker P, Andrews N.Functional capacity from Nordic Walking among elderly people. Seminar poster at University of Jyväskylä, Finland, 2002.
- Parkkari J, Kannus P, Natri A, Lapinleimu I, Palvanen M, Heiskanen M, Vuori I, Järvinen M. Active living and Injury Risk. Internatioanal Journal of Sports Medicine 25:209-216, 2004.
- Porcari, Hendrickson, Walter, Terry, Walsko. The physiological responses to walking with and without Power Poles™ on treadmill exercise. Res Quart Exerc Sports 68(2),161-166,1997.
- Porcari. Pump up your walk. ACSM`s Health and Fitness Journal Jan/Feb,25-29, 1999.
- Ripatti T. Effect of Nordic Walkin training program on cardiovascular fitness. Academic degree study. Sportartspezifische Leistungsfähigkeit Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln, Germany, 2002.
- Rodgers, Vanheest, Schachter. Energy expenditure during submaximal walking with Exerctriders®. Med Sci Sports Exerc 27(4), 607-611,1995.
- Schmidt A, Sonnen J, Krämer A, Roth R. Nordic Walking- an analysis of target groups and percpectives. 9th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science. Clermont-Ferrand, France, 03.-06.07.2004. Book of abstracts.
- Shove E, Pantzar M. Consumers, producers and practices: understanding the invention and reinvention of Nordic Walking. Journal of Consumer Culture (in press 2004).
- Stoughton. Psychological profiles before and after 12 weeks of walking or Exertrider training in adult women. Thesis. University of Wisconsin-La Grosse, 1992.
- Walter, Porcari, Brice, Terry. Acute responses to using walking poles in patients with coronary artery disease. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Jul-Aug;16(4), 245-50, 1996.
- Wilk M, Kocur P, Przywarska I, Rozanska A, Owczarski T, Dylewicz P, 2005 (unpublished)
- Willson J, Torry M, Decker M, Kernozek T, Steadman J. Effects of walking poles on lower extremity gait mechanics. Journal: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 33 (1): p 142-147, January, 2001.